Photo by The Pirates of Penzance, 2017. Photo by Cory Weaver.


Abarbanel, Jonathan. “La Traviata.” In The (Chicago) Lyric Opera Companion. Kansas City, MO: Andrews and McMeel, 1991.

Budden, Julian. The Operas of Verdi, v. 2. Oxford England: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Edwards, Geoffrey and Ryan Edwards. The Verdi Baritone: Studies in the Development of a Character. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1994.

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Hickman, Kate. Courtesans: Money, Sex and Fame in the Nineteenth Century. New York: William Morrow, 2003.

Kimbell, David R.B. Verdi in the Age of Italian Romanticism. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

La Traviata. The Metropolitan Opera Classics Library. Gary Schmidgall, ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1983.

Lee, M. Owen. A Season of Opera: From Orpheus to Aridadne. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

Martin, George. Verdi: His Music, Life and Times. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1963.

Osborne, Charles. The Complete Operas of Verdi. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1970.

The Opera News Book of Traviata. Frank Merkling, ed. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1967.

Phillips-Matz, Mary Jane. Verdi: A Biography. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Verdi’s Middle Period. Martin Chusid, ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

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