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Kerman, Joseph. Opera as Drama. New York: Vintage Books, 1959.

McDonald, Ray S. Puccini: King of Verismo. New York: Vantage Press, 1973.

Nicassio, Susan Vandiver. Tosca’s Rome. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Osborne, Charles. The Complete Operas of Puccini. New York: Atheneum, 1982.

Phillips-Matz, Mary Jane. Puccini: A Biography. Boston: Northeastern Univ. Press, 2002.

Von Buchau, Stephanie. “Puccini’s Tosca.” The [Chicago] Lyric Opera Companion. Ed. Kansas City, MO: Andrews and McMeel, 1991.


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