Cav/Pag in Pop Culture

By: Lyric Opera Staff

Last updated:

by Beth Wamsley

Don’t know opera? Think again! Cavalleria rusticana and Pagliacci have left a mark not only on the world of classical music, but of pop culture. These two iconic works (often referred to together as Cav/Pag) have been referenced, parodied, and celebrated across various forms of media.


Seinfeld has paid tribute to opera more than once. In the episode “The Opera,” the plot centers around the characters attending a production of Pagliacci. Throughout the episode, the characters’ lives start to imitate the plot of the opera!

Much like Canio in Pagliacci, Elaine’s boyfriend “Crazy” Joe Davola struggles to differentiate reality from fiction. He believes Elaine is cheating on him, calling her Nedda by mistake. Later, he puts on clown makeup while “Vesti la giubba” plays in the background. He walks around the park in a full Pagliaccio costume on his way to see Pagliacci.


Batman’s famous arch-nemesis The Joker is often thought to be inspired by Pagliacci’s infamous sad-clown, Canio. In a scene from the original Batman television series, The Joker (played by Cesar Romero) performs “Vesti la giubba” before his identity is revealed.

The Simpsons

In the Simpsons episode “The Italian Bob,” the Simpsons family travels to Italy where they run into Bart’s old nemesis Sideshow Bob. They tour Italy’s cultural highlights, including of course a performance of Pagliacci! “Vesti la giubba” is performed by none other than Krusty the Clown. Sideshow Bob promptly takes over the performance.

To Rome with Love

Woody Allen’s To Rome with Love is a magical realist comedy set in Rome. Woody Allen’s character, Jerry, is a retired and critically reviled opera director. His daughter’s future Italian father-in-law, Giancarlo, is a singer who can only perform well in the shower. So, of course, Jerry and Giancarlo decide to stage Pagliacci in a matter where a shower is present in every scene.

The Godfather

In The Godfather: Part III, the final 45 minutes center around the Michael Corleone family attending a performance of Cavalleria rusticana where his son plays Turiddu. The action of the movie coincides with the opera on stage. After Michael’s daughter is killed, the heartbreak of the moment is highlighted by the infamous Intermezzo.

Raging Bull

Another infamous use of the Cavalleria rusticana’s Intermezzo is in the opening of Raging Bull.


Cavalleria rusticana and Pagliacci have transcended the boundaries of the operatic stage to the world of pop culture. Through references in popular TV shows, films, music, and advertising, these operas have proven their enduring relevance and ability to evoke powerful emotions across generations. These operas remind us of the timeless nature of human emotions and the universal appeal of storytelling through music.